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Lesson 5


Numbers, Time, Dates, etc.

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Numbers, Time, and Days of the Week

Before we get too much further into Japanese grammar and verb conjugation, I thought it would be a good idea to teach Japanese numbers, time, days of the week, etc.

漢字 - Kanji ひらがな - Hiragana Romaji
(English Letters)
English Meaning
いち ichi one
ni two
さん san three
し、 よん shi (yon after 10) four
go five
ろく roku six
しち、 なな shichi (nana after 10) seven
はち hachi eight
きゅう kyuu nine
じゅう juu ten
ひゃく hyaku hundred

Numbers after 10 are a piece of cake once you know 1 through 10. 11 is simply ten with a one after it, 十一 (じゅういち, juuichi), 12 - juuni, 13 - juusan, 14 - juuyon, etc. 20 is simply 二十 (にじゅう, nijuu), 21 - nijuuichi, and so forth.

Put these numbers in front of the character for time 時 and you've got the time of the day.

漢字 - Kanji ひらがな - Hiragana Romaji
(English Letters)
English Meaning
一時 いちじ ichiji one o'clock
二時 にじ niji two o'clock
二時半 にじはん nijihan two thirty (半 means half)
二時四十五分 にじよんじゅうごふん nijiyonjuugofun 2:45 (分 means minute)
...etc.

Now just put the character for moon 月 after a number and you've got a month.

漢字 - Kanji ひらがな - Hiragana Romaji
(English Letters)
English Meaning
一月 いちがつ ichigatsu January
二月 にがつ nigatsu February
三月 さんがつ sangatsu March
四月 しがつ shigatsu April
...etc.

Japanese days of the week don't follow such an easy pattern but here they are anyway along with some other time-related words.

漢字 - Kanji ひらがな - Hiragana Romaji
(English Letters)
English Meaning
日曜日 にちようび nichiyoubi Sunday (日 - sun/day)
月曜日 げつようび getsuyoubi Monday (月 - moon)
火曜日 かようび kayoubi Tuesday (火 - fire)
水曜日 すいようび suiyoubi Wednesday (水 - water)
木曜日 もくようび mokuyoubi Thursday (木 - tree/wood)
金曜日 きんようび kinyoubi Friday (金 - gold)
土曜日 どようび doyoubi Saturday (土 - dirt)
今日 きょう kyou Today
明日 あした ashita Tomorrow
昨日 きのう kinou Yesterday
一昨日 おととい ototoi the day before yesterday
明後日 あさって asatte the day after tomorrow (a small "tsu" (っ) makes a double consonant)
今朝 けさ kesa this morning
今晩 こんばん konban this evening
いま ima now
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