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Lesson 7


Verb Conjugation Continued

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Ichidan Verbs - 一段動詞

The second group of Japanese verbs are called Ichidan (一段) verbs. It is usually an Ichidan verb if it ends with the sound "iru" or "eru". Some well used Japanese verbs which appear to be Ichidan but are really Godan are listed here. Ichidan verbs also follow a simple conjugation pattern that is somewhat similar to that of the Godan verbs. Below is a verb conjugation chart for Japanese Ichidan verbs:

漢字 - Kanji ひらがな - Hiragana Romaji
(English Letters)
Verb Base
食べる たべる taberu (to eat)
食べ たべ tabe Base 1
食べ たべ tabe Base 2
食べる たべる taberu Base 3
食べれ たべれ tabere Base 4
食べよう たべよう tabeyou Base 5
食べて たべて tabete Base "te"
食べた たべた tabeta Base "ta"

Base 1 and Base 2: As you can see, Base 1 and 2 are the same. Just like with the Godan verbs, a negative can be made by adding -nai (ex. tabenai - I will not eat.) and this base, or root form, is also used for the formal form of the verb.

Base 3: Base 3 is the same as with Godan verbs.

Base 4: Base 4, however, can not be used by itself like with Godan verbs. It is only used for "if verb" by adding -ba. (ex. tabereba - If I eat it...) It is not the low command form for Ichidan verbs. The low command form for Ichidan verbs is Base 1 + ろ (ro).

Base 5: Base 5 is the same as with Godan verbs.

Base "te" and Base "ta": The Base "te" and "ta" forms for Ichidan verbs are a lot easier than with Godan verbs. Simply take off the "ru" and add a "te" for Base "te" and a "ta" for Base "ta". These have the same functions as with Godan verbs.

Here are some Ichidan verbs. Try conjugating them on a piece of paper using what you have just learned. Click here for the answers.

漢字 - Kanji ひらがな - Hiragana Romaji
(English Letters)
English Meaning
いる いる iru to exist (animate), to be somewhere
見る みる miru to see
寝る ねる neru to sleep
着る きる kiru to wear, put on
出来る できる dekiru can do
覚える おぼえる oboeru to remember

Irregular Verbs

The last type of verbs are the Irregular verbs but there are only 2 of them in the entire language so just memorize their charts below. The first one is suru (to do something). Many nouns can be used as a verb simply by putting "suru" right after them. It is probably the most used of all Japanese verbs. The second Irregular verb is kuru (to come).

漢字 - Kanji ひらがな - Hiragana Romaji
(English Letters)
Verb Base
する する suru (to do)
shi Base 1
shi Base 2
する する suru Base 3
すれ すれ sure Base 4
しよう しよう shiyou Base 5
して して shite Base "te"
した した shita Base "ta"

The functions for these bases are the same as for the Godan verbs except that Base 4 can only be used as the "if verb".
The rude command form is "Shiro".

漢字 - Kanji ひらがな - Hiragana Romaji
(English Letters)
Verb Base
来る くる kuru (to come)
ko Base 1
ki Base 2
来る くる kuru Base 3
来れ くれ kure Base 4
来よう こよう koyou Base 5
来て きて kite Base "te"
来た きた kita Base "ta"

The functions for these bases are the same as for the Godan verbs except that Base 4 can only be used as the "if verb".
The rude command form is "Koi" and really should only be used on animals.

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